General Constitutional Protections
The WORLD Policy Analysis Center analyzed national constitutional text in force as of May 2014.
Why consider constitutions?
Among the tools that governments use to regulate human rights are national and sub-national legislation, targeted programs and policies, and national constitutions. Most of the maps in our website are based on national policies and laws such as whether education is free, and whether parents can take leave for children’s health needs. The implications of these policies, if implemented and enforced properly, are clear. Constitutions typically outline a broader set of rights for which implementation mechanisms are less clear. They often need to be translated into laws and policies to have a widespread impact on citizens’ lives, however:
For these reasons, we consider it important to provide information on countries’ constitutional provisions in addition to the commitments outlined in policies and legislation.
For details on the variables included in this category, please see WORLD global maps on Equal Rights and Discrimination.
Preventing Workplace Discrimination and Sexual Harassment
The WORLD Policy Analysis Center reviewed original legislation and statutory protections extended to the private sector in labor codes, anti-discrimination legislation, and equal opportunity legislation, and penal codes as of August 2016. Original, full-text, national-level legislation for all 193 United Nations member states was identified primarily using the International Labour Organization (ILO)’s NATLEX database. As an additional source for sexual harassment variables, we examined links to legislation through the World Bank’s Women, Business, and the Law.
Initial data analysis has focused on national-level law and policy collected by the UN and other global organizations. For countries that legislate at the sub-national level and have no federal policy in place, we coded based on the lowest level of protection set at the state or provincial level. This review and analysis does not include legislative protections from discrimination that are not specific to the workplace (such as protections which may apply to public spaces or educational institutions).
For details on the variables included in this category, please see WORLD global maps on Workplace Discrimination.
For more information on non-discrimination guarantees in constitutions, please visit our Constitutions page.
For more information about WORLD’s approach to building globally comparative databases on policies affecting human health, development, well-being, and equity, please visit our Methodology page.